Crime In The United States

Posted by on Jun 09, 2012 | Comments Off on Crime In The United States

Crime statistics for the United States are published annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Uniform Crime Reports which represents crimes reported to the police. The Bureau of Justice Statistics conducts the annual National Crime Victimization Surveywhich captures crimes not reported to the police.

In 2009 America’s crime rate was roughly the same as in 1968, with the homicide rate being at its lowest level since 1964. Overall, the national crime rate was 3466 crimes per 100,000 residents, down from 3680 crimes per 100,000 residents forty years earlier in 1969 (-9.4%).

The likelihood of committing and falling victim to crime also depends on several demographic characteristics, as well as location of the population. Overall, men, minorities, the young, and those in financially less favorable positions are more likely to be crime victims, as well as commit crimes.Crime in the US is also concentrated in certain areas.

It is quite common for crime in American cities to be highly concentrated in a few, often economically disadvantaged areas. For example, San Mateo County, California had a population of approximately 707,000 and 17 homicides in 2001. Six of these 17 homicides took place in poor East Palo Alto, which had a population of roughly 30,000. So, while East Palo Alto accounted for a mere 4.2% of the population, about one-third of the homicides took place there.According to the FBI, in 2008 14,180 people were murdered in America.

The country’s overall crime rate is measured by the number of offenses being reported per 100,000 people.

Crime over time:

 

Crime has been a long-standing concern in the United States, with high rates at the beginning of the 20th century compared to parts of Western Europe. In 1916, 198 homicides were recorded in Chicago, a city of slightly over 2 million at the time. This level of crime was not exceptional when compared to other American cities such as New York City, but was much higher relative to European cities, such as London, which then had three times the population but recorded only 45 homicides in the same year.

In the long term, homicide in America has been in decline since colonial times.

As shown in the charts above, reported violent crime nationwide nearly quadrupled between 1960 and its peak in 1991. Property crime more than doubled over the same period. Since 1993, crime has declined steeply. Several theories have been proposed to explain the cause.

  1. One hypothesis suggests a causal link between legalized abortion and the drop in crime during the 1990s.
  2. Another hypothesis suggests reduced lead exposure as the cause; Scholar Mark A.R. Kleiman writes: “Given the decrease in lead exposure among children since the 1980s and the estimated effects of lead on crime, reduced lead exposure could easily explain a very large proportion—certainly more than half—of the crime decrease of the 1994-2004 period. A careful statistical study relating local changes in lead exposure to local crime rates estimates the fraction of the crime decline due to lead reduction as greater than 90 percent.

The year 2010 was overall the safest year in almost forty years. The recent overall decrease has reflected upon all significant types of crime, with all violent and property crimes having decreased and reached an all-time low. The homicide rate in particular has decreased 51% between its record high point in 1991 and 2010.

From 2000-2008, the homicide rate stagnated. While the homicide rate decreased continuously between 1991 and 2000 from 9.8 homicides per 100,000 persons to 5.5 per 100,000, it remained at 5.4-5.7 until 2009, when it dipped down to 5.0, and continued to drop in 2010 to 4.8.

Despite the recent stagnation of the homicide rate, however, property and violent crimes overall have continued to decrease, though at a considerably slower pace than in the 1990s.Overall, the crime rate in the U.S. was the same in 2009 as in 1968, with the homicide rate being roughly the same as in 1964. Violent crime overall, however, is still at the same level as in 1973, despite having decreased steadily since 1991.

Crime Rate 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991
Voilent Crime Rate 396 417.4 487.8 475.9 548.9 594.3 537.7 556.6 609.7 663.1 758.2
Homicide Rate 8.6 9.4 9.6 8.8 9.8 9.8 8.3 8.0 8.3 8.7 9.8
Property Crime Rate 3769 3737 4811 4602 5017 5264 4637 4650 4940 5078 5140


 

 

Crime Rate 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2010
Voilent Crime Rate 747.1 684.5 611.0 523.0 504.5 475.8 469.0 472.0 429.4 403.6
Homicide Rate 9.5 8.2 6.8 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.0 4.8
Property Crime Rate 4740 4591 4316 3744 3658 3591 3432 3277 3036 2941

 

 

 

Characteristics of offenders:

According to the latest US Department of Justice survey of crime victims, more than 6.6 million violent crimes (murder, rape, assault and robbery) are committed in the US each year, of which about 20 percent, or 1.3 million, are inter-racial crimes.

According to the survey “Highlights from 20 Years of Surveying Crime Victims”, published in 1993, 75% of white victims were victimized by whites and about 85% of black victims were victimized by blacks.

As of 2008, a statistics report which surveyed all persons arrested for offending, stated that of the crimes surveyed for which the identity of the offender could be determined, 77.2 percent of all persons arrested were white or Hispanic, 20.3 percent of people arrested for offending were black or black and Hispanic; and the remaining 2.4 percent were of other races. After arrest, 45.1% of violent crimes and 17.4% of property crimes nationwide were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

As of 2008, statistics report that of 16,277 murders, 10,568 were committed by males, 1,176 were by female, and 4,533 were committed in which the offenders sex was unknown. Likewise, 5,334 murders were committed by white offenders, 5,943 were committed by black or black and Hispanic offenders, 273 were committed by offenders of other races, and 4,727 murders were committed by offenders whose race is not known.

As of 2001, the chances of going to prison in percentages for various demographic groups

According to Anthony Walsh, “Whites constituted 82.2% of the American population in 1999 (US Bureau of the Census, 2000), with arrest rates for murder (48.9%), rape (63.1%), robbery (46.0%), aggravated assault (64.4%), burglary (68.1%), larceny/theft (64.9%), motor vehicle theft (58.0%), and arson (72.4%). It should be noted that the “white” category in the UCR includes non-black Hispanics, and the “black” category includes black Hispanics.”

A 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report on rape and sexual-based crime published by the United States Department of Justice stated that of the crimes surveyed, whites represented 65.2% of persons arrested for rape, blacks represented 32.2%, with American Indians and Asians ranking just above 1%. “Hispanics”, “Hispanic-White” or “Hispanic-Black” was not specified into any specific category.

According to the latest “Hate Crimes Reported by Victims and Police,” a 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics Report, hate crime offenders were predominantly white (61%), whereas the victims were predominantly black (72.9%) and targeted because of their race (51%). Among religious hate crimes, the majority of victims were of Jewish faith (65.7%) with less than one in ten offenses aimed at people of the Muslim faith (7.7%).Among crimes aimed at ethnicity and national background, the majority of hate crimes were of anti-Hispanic bias (64%).

Reporting at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (August 3, 2008), sociologists at Bowling Green State University found that men who attend college are more likely to commit property crimes during their college years than their non-college-attending peers. The research draws from three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and examines education, crime levels, substance abuse and socializing among adolescents and young adults. Also, according to Naci Mocan of the University of Colorado and Erdal Tekin of Georgia State University, “We find that unattractive individuals commit more crime in comparison to average-looking ones, and very attractive individuals commit less crime in comparison to those who are average-looking.”

Crime victimology:

Patterns are found within the victimology of crime in the United States. Overall, the financially disadvantaged, those younger than 25 and non Whites were more likely to fall victim to crime. Income, sex and age had the most dramatic effect on the chances of a person being victimized by crime, while the characteristic of race depended upon the crime being committed.

In 2005, 2.7% of African Americans became the victim of a violent crime, compared to 2.0% of Whites. African Americans were overall 35% more likely to sustain a violent crime. The likelihood of being murdered was drastically higher for African Americans. In 2004 African Americans constituted roughly 13.4% of the general population, yet, nearly half, 49%, of all murder victims in 2005 were African American.

Sexual assault and rape rates were roughly the same for all races. Whites and African Americans also had approximately the same chances of falling victim to simple assaults.

In terms of gender, males were more likely to become crime victims than were females, with 79% percent of all murder victims being male. Males were also twice as likely to be carjacked as were females.

In terms of income, households with a 2008 annual income of less than $15,000 were significantly more likely to have their homes burgled.

Concerning age, those younger than twenty-five were more likely to fall victim to crime, especially violent crime. The chances of being victimized by violent crime decreased far more substantially with age than the chances of becoming the victim of property crime. For example, 3.03% of crimes committed against a young person were theft, while 20% of crimes committed against an elderly person were theft. Thus, one can conclude that the probability of becoming a violent crime victim decreases as income and age increase, in addition to being lower for European Americans and females.

Crimes against the homeless:

A 2007 study found that the number of violent crimes against the homeless is increasing. The rate of such documented crimes in 2005 was 30% higher than of those in 1999. 75% of all perpetrators are under the age of 25. Studies and surveys indicate that homeless people have a much higher criminal victimization rate than the non-homeless, but that most incidents never get reported to authorities.

In recent years, largely due to the efforts of the National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH) and academic researchers the problem of violence against the homeless has gained national attention. The NCH called deliberate attacks against the homeless hate crimes in their report Hate, Violence, and Death on Mainstreet USA (they retain the definition of the American Congress).

The Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino in conjunction with the NCH found that 155 homeless people were killed by non-homeless people in “hate killings”, while 76 people were killed in all the other traditional hate crime homicide categories such as race and religion, combined. The CSHE contends that negative and degrading portrayals of the homeless contribute to a climate where violence takes place.

Prison statistics:

Compared with other countries, the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world. As of 2006, a record 7 million people were behind bars, on probation or on parole, of which 2.2 million were incarcerated. The People’s Republic of China ranks second with 1.5 million. The United States has 5% of the world’s population and 25% of the world’s incarcerated population.

In terms of federal prison, 57% of those incarcerated were sentenced for drug offenses. However, the federal prison population is a very small percentage of the massive state prison population, which also holds numerous people convicted of drug offenses. Currently, considering county jails as well, almost a million of those incarcerated are in prison for non-violent crime. In 2002, 93.2% of prisoners weremale. 10.4% of the black males in the United States between the ages of 25 and 29 were sentenced and in prison by year end, as were 2.4% of Hispanic males and 1.2% of white males.

Many sociologists and criminal justice academics argue that this disparity in prison population is reflective of discriminatory sentencing.[citation needed] In a study conducted by the Rand Corporation, it has been estimated that Blacks and Latinos received longer sentences and spent more time in prison than their white counterparts who were convicted of similar crimes and with similar criminal records. One particular example revealed the state of California statistically imposed sentences that averaged 6.5 months longer for Hispanics, and 1.5 months longer for Blacks when compared to white inmates.

More than one in 100 adults in the United States is in jail or prison, an all-time high that costs state governments nearly $50 billion a year and the federal government $5 billion more. With more than 2.3 million people behind bars, the United States leads the world in both the number and percentage of residents it incarcerates, leaving China a remote second, according to a study by the Pew Center on the States. For example, Florida, which has almost doubled its prison population over the past 15 years, has experienced a smaller drop in crime than New York, which, after a brief increase, has reduced its number of inmates to below the 1993 level.

International comparison:

The manner in which America’s crime rate compared to other countries of similar wealth and development depends on the nature of the crime used in the comparison. Overall crime statistic comparisons are difficult to conduct, as the definition of crimes significant enough to be published in annual reports varies across countries. Thus an agency in a foreign country may include crimes in its annual reports which the United States omits.

Some countries such as Canada, however, have similar definitions of what constitutes a violent crime, and nearly all countries had the same definition of the characteristics that constitutes a homicide. Overall the total crime rate of the United States is similar to that of other highly developed countries. Some types of reported property crime in the U.S. survey as lower than in Germany or Canada, yet the homicide rate in the United States is substantially higher.

Homicide:

The US homicide rate, which has declined substantially since 1991 from a rate per 100,000 persons of 9.8 to 4.8 in 2010, is still among the highest in the industrialized world. There were 14,748 murders in the United States in 2010 (666,160 murders from 1960 to 1996). In 2004, there were 5.5 homicides for every 100,000 persons, roughly three times as high as Canada (1.9) and six times as high as Germany (0.9). A closer look at The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data indicates that per-capita homicide rates over the last 30 years on average of major cities, New Orleans’ average annual per capita homicide rate of 52 murders per 100,000 people overall (1980–2009) ranks highest of U.S. cities with average annual homicide totals among the 10 highest during the same period.  Most industrialized countries had homicide rates below the 2.5 mark.

In the United States, the number of homicides where the victim and offender relationship was undetermined has been increasing since 1999 but has not reached the levels experienced in the early 1990s. In 14% of all murders, the victim and the offender were strangers. Spouses and family members made up about 15% of all victims, about one-third of the victims were acquaintances of the assailant, and the victim and offender relationship was undetermined in over one-third of homicides. Gun involvement in homicides were gang related homicides which increased after 1980, homicides that occurred during the commission of a felony which increased from 55% in 1985 to 77% in 2005, homicides resulting from arguments which declined to the lowest levels recorded recently, and homicides resulting from other circumstances which remained relatively constant. Because gang killing has become a normal part of inner cities, many including police, hold preconceptions about the causes of death in inner cities. When a death is labeled gang related it lowers the chances that it will be investigated and increases the chances that the perpetrator will remain at large. In addition, victims of gang killings often determine the priority a case will be given by police. Jenkins (1988) argues that many serial murder cases remain unknown to police and that cases involving Black offenders and victims are especially likely to escape official attention.

Violent crime:

The reported US violent crime rate includes only Aggravated Assault, whereas the Canadian violent crime rate includes all categories of assault, including the much-more-numerous Assault level 1 (i.e., assault not using a weapon and not resulting in serious bodily harm). A government study concluded that direct comparison of the 2 countries’ violent crime totals or rates was “inappropriate”.

Property crime:

According to a 2004 study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, looking at the period from 1981 to 1999, the United States had a lower surveyed residential burglary rate in 1998 than Scotland, England, Canada, the Netherlands, and Australia. The other two countries included in the study, Sweden and Switzerland, had only slightly lower burglary rates. (Note: The rate of burglary in Police records remained higher in the U.S. than most other countries during the study period (see graph)). For the first nine years of the study period the same surveys of the public showed only Australia with rates higher than the U.S. The authors noted various problems in doing the comparisons including infrequent data points (The U.S. performed 5 surveys from 1995 to 1999 when its rate dipped below Canada’s while Canada ran a single telephone survey during that period for comparison)

Physical abuse and neglect of children:

According to a 2001 report from UNICEF, the United States has the highest rate of deaths from child abuse and neglect of any industrialized nation, at 2.4 per 100,000 children; France has 1.4, Japan 1, UK 0.9 and Germany 0.8. According to the US Department of Health, the state of Texas has the highest death rate, at 4.05 per 100,000 children, New York has 2.46, Oregon 1.49 and New Hampshire 0.35.

Geography of crime:

Location has a very significant impact on crime in the United States. While some responding jurisdictions are nearly free of serious crime, others are plagued by some of the highest serious crime rates in the industrialized world. The homicide rate exemplifies the stark differences between communities.

For example, in 2004 the New Orleans police departments reported more homicides per 100,000 residents than any other jurisdiction. The rate of homicide per 100,000 was 56.0, which was ten times the national average. By contrast, in 2005 Forbesmagazine listed Long Island, one of the suburban areas of New York City, which is also one of the wealthiest and most expensive communities in the United States, as having 2.042 crimes per 100,000 residents; the lowest crime rate and less than half the US average .

Fair-fax County, Virginia, a very affluent suburban enclave of the nation’s capital with 1,041,200 residents, had the lowest homicide rate of any jurisdiction. In 2004, Fairfax County’s homicide rate was reported at 0.3 homicides per 100,000 persons, 94.5% below the national average and 1/145 of Philadelphia’s homicide rate. It is therefore important to remember that the risk of being victimized by crime in the United States varies greatly from locale to locale.

Large cities:

Crime among the country’s twenty largest cities tended to be above the national average. It is, however, important to note that these statistics exclude the given city’s suburbs and only reflect the crime rates within the jurisdiction of a given city’s police department.

Rates are based on cases per 100,000 for all of calendar 2007.

City State Population Violent crime Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Property crime Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Arson
Austin Texas 716,817 540 4 46 203 287 6,341 1,120 4,808 413 16
Baltimore Maryland 624,237 1,631 45 23 624 939 4,796 1,182 2,682 932 65
Chicago Illinois 2,824,434 N/A 16 N/A 546 617 4,472 876 2,937 659 25
Columbus Ohio 735,981 852 11 90 523 228 6,996 1,952 4,198 846 87
Dallas Texas 1,239,104 1,069 16 41 583 429 6,776 1,814 1,113 73
Detroit Michigan 860,971 6,772 2,064 2,430 2,278 88
El Paso Texas 616,029 418 3 42 77 297 3,201 349 2,361 492 13
Fort Worth Texas 670,693 667 9 50 242 367 5,469 1,343 3,726 400 34
Houston Texas 2,169,544 1,132 16 32 529 555 5,684 1,339 3,449 897 48
Indianapolis Indiana 797,268 1,234 14 63 507 649 6,308 1,679 3,666 963 42
Jacksonville Florida 797,350 1,022 15 31 391 584 5,696 1,394 3,698 604 23
Los Angeles California 3,870,487 718 10 26 348 334 2,621 507 1,506 608 57
Memphis Tennessee 669,264 1,951 19 68 728 1,136 8,062 2,183 4,953 926 22
New York New York 8,220,196 614 6 11 265 332 1,819 254 1,403 161 N/A
Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,635,533 1,475 47 37 1215 767 4,305 803 2,728 774 N/A
Phoenix Arizona 1,541,698 724 14 33 321 356 5,826 1,246 3,227 1,353 32
San Antonio Texas 1,316,882 556 9 48 186 313 6,390 1,272 4,607 511 35
San Diego California 1,261,196 502 5 23 166 308 3,502 609 1,845 1,049 16
San Francisco California 733,799 1,037 14 17 514 493 4,696 692 3,199 804 32
San Jose California 934,553 402 4 23 114 261 2,575 476 1,412 686 36

States:

Map of violent crime per 100,000 people in the USA by state in 2004.

  < 100
  >100-200
  >200-300
  >300-400
  >400-500
  >500-600
  >600-700
  >700-800

Crime rates vary greatly across the states. Overall, New England had the lowest crime rates, for both violent and property crimes. New England states also had the lowest homicide rates in the country.

A closer look at per capita homicide rates for each state from FBI Uniform Crime Reports Bureau of Justice Statistics indicate that Louisiana’s per capita homicide rate has ranked 1st every single year from 1989 to 2010, which is 22 consecutive years.

Southern states had the highest overall crime rates. Crime can also be isolated to one particular part of a state. Lafayette, Louisiana, for instance had 6 murders per 100,000 people in 2004, while New Orleans, Louisiana, had 56 murders per 100,000 people according to Bureau of Justice Statistics for the same year.

Almost all of the nation’s wealthiest twenty states, which included northern mid-western and western states such as Minnesota and California, had crime rates below the national average. In addition to having the country’s lowest crime rates, New Englandstates also had the country’s highest median household income, while the Southern states have the lowest.

This contrasts starkly to some of the nation’s poorer states such as Florida orLouisiana. Louisiana had a crime rate 27% and a homicide rate 130.9% above the national average and ranked as the nation’s fourth poorest state with a median household income 20% below the national median. While poorer states generally have higher crime rates, several states who fell below the national median for household income such as Maine and Kentucky also had crime rates below the national average, while some wealthier states such as Maryland and Hawaii had crime rates above the national average

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_in_the_United_States

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